Construction

Personal Protective Equipment For Construction workers

Personal Protective Equipment is designed to protect construction workers from serious injuries or illnesses resulting from contact with chemical, radiological, physical, electrical, mechanical or other hazards. The following products are applicable to construction workers.

Personal Protective Equipment Table
Items Products Main Purpose Technical Performance
1 Head protection products Safety helmet Safety protection of the head, face and neck Its technical performance should meet the requirements of EN 397
2 Eyes and face protection products Goggles Personal eye-protection specifications Its technical performance should meet the requirements of EN 166:2002
Welding mask Safety protection of the eyes and face Its technical performance should meet the requirements of EN 175:1997
3 Hearing organ protection products earplugs/earmuffs Safety protect of ear Its technical performance should meet the requirements of EN 352-1-2002
4 Protective clothing products common work clothes Safety protect of body
reflective safety clothes
raincoat Its technical performance should meet the requirements of EN 343:2003
5 Hand protection products Gloves Safety protect of hand and wrist Its technical performance should meet the requirements of EN420
6 Foot protection products Safety shoes & boots Safety protect of foot Its technical performance should meet the requirements of EN 344
7 Fall prevention products safety rope Safety protect for preventing fall Its technical performance should meet the requirements of EN 353-1: 2015
safety net Its technical performance should meet the requirements of GB 5725-2009
8 Personal protection products Roadblock Safety protect for personal
Road cone
Barrier
Standards NO. Details
GB 2811-2017 Specfication for Industrial safety helmets
GB/T 3609.1-2008 Occupational eye and face protection-Welding protection­Part 1: Welding protector
GB 14866-2006 The specifications for personal eye-protectors
GB 16556-2007 Respiratory protective devices – self-contained open-circuit compressed air breathing apparatus with full face mask
GB 2626-2006 Respiratory protective devices – filtering half masks to protect against particles
GB 32610-2016 Technical specification of daily protective mask
GB 2891-1995 performance test methods for facepiece of filter type respirator
GB 19084-2003 Geberak degreased gauze mask
GB 5893.1-1986 Ear protector-Earplugs
GB 24502-2009 Chemical oxygen self-rescuer for coal mine
GB 24540-2009 Protective clothing-protective clothing against liquid acids and alkalis
GB 12014-2009 Static protective clothing
GB 11542-1989 Rain coat
GB 8965.1-2009 Protective clothing – Flame-retardant protection – Part 1: Flame-retardant protective clothing
GB 21148-2007 Personal protective equipment – safety footwear
GB 12018-1989 Acid and alkali-resistant leather shoes
GB 12011-2000 Foot protection-Electrically insulating footwear
GB 28287-2012 Foot protection- test method for footwear slip resistance
AQ 6102-2007 Acid and alkali resistant gloves
GB 12624-2009 Protective gloves – general requirements and test methods
DB41/T 266-2013 Canvas gloves
GB 17622-2008 Live working-gloves of insulating material
DB22/T 1963-2013 Labor protection, cut-resistant sewing gloves
LD 2-1991 General technical requirement for vibration isolation gloves
GB 6095-2009 Personal fall protection systems
GB 5725-2009 Safety nets
Standards NO. Details
EN 397 Industrial safety helmet EN397
EN 50365 Electrically insulating helmets for use on low voltage installations
EN 166:2002 Personal eye-protection specifications
EN 175:1997 Equipment for eye and face protection during welding and allied processes
EN 207:2017 Filters and eye-protectors against laser radiation(laser eye-protectors)
EN 137-2006 Respiratory protective devices – self-contained open-circuit compressed air breathing apparatus with full face mask
EN 149:2001 Respiratory protective devices – filtering half masks to protect against particles
EN 136-1998 Respiratory protective devices – full face masks
EN 14387:2006 Respiratory protective devices-gas filter(s) and combined filter(s)-
EN 143-2000 Respiratory protective devices-particle filters
EN 352-1:2002 Hearing protectors-general requirements
EN 13794-2002 Respiratory protective devices-self-contained closed-circuit breathing apparatus for esacpe
EN 14605-2005 Protective clothing against liquid chemicals-performance requirements for clothing with liquid-tight or spray-tight connections, including items providing protection to parts of the body only.
EN 11612-2005 Protective clothing – clothing to protect against heat and flame – Minimum performance requirements
EN 11611 Protective clothing for use in welding and allied processes
EN 469 Protective clothing for firefighters-performance requirements for protective clothing for firefighting
EN 343:2003 Protective clothing – protection against rain
EN 344-2:1997 Safety, protective and occupational footwear for professional use
EN 345-2:1997 Safety footwear for professional use
EN 388 Protective gloves against mechanical risks
EN 420 Protective gloves-general requirements and test methods
EN 511 Protective gloves against cold
EN 374-1:2016 Protective gloves against dangerous chemicals and micro-organisms
EN 407:1994 Protective gloves against thermal risks
EN 12477 Protective gloves for welders
EN 353-1:2015 Personal fall protection equipment-guided type fall arresters including an anchor line
EN 354 Personal fall protection equipment-lanyards
EN 355:2002 Personal protective equipment against falls from a height-energy absorbers
EN 358-2018 Personal protective equipment for work positioning and prevention of falls from a height – belts and lanyards for work positioning or restraint.
Standards NO. Details
ANSI/ISEA Z 89.1 – 2014 American National Standard for Industrial Head Protection
ANSI Z 87.1-2015 Personal eye and face protection devices
ANSI Z 88.2 Practices for respiratory protection
NIOSH 42 CFR PART84 Respiratory protective devices
ANSI S 3.19-1974 Electronic ear protector ear muff
ANSI/ESD STM 2.1-2013 For the protection of electrostatic discharge susceptible items-garments
ASTM F1506 Standard Performance Specification for Flame Resistant and Electric Arc Rated Protective Clothing Worn by Workers Exposed to Flames and Electric Arcs
ANSI Z41 American National Standard for Personal Protection – Protective Footwear
ASTM D120-2014 Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating Gloves
ASTM F496 Standard specification for in-service care of insulating gloves and sleeves
ANSI/ISEA105-2016 Hand Protection Classification
ANSI/ISEA138-2019 American national standard for performance for performance and classification for impact resistant hand protection, has been published to improve on the impact performance of industrial gloves
ASTM D6319 Standard specification for nitrile examination gloves for medical application
ANSI/ASSE Z359.1-2007 Safety requirements for personal fall arrest systems, subsystems and components
Standards NO. Details
AS NZS 1067.1-2016 Eye and face protection – sunglasses and fashion spectacles
AS/NZS 1716:2012 Respiratory protective devices
AS/NZS 1270:2002 Hearing protectors
AS/NSZ 2161.4:1999 Occupatioinal protective gloves, part 4: protection against thermal risks(heat and fire)
Standards NO. Details
CSA Z94.1 Industrial protective headwear – Performance, selection, care, and use
CSA Z94.2-02 (R2011) Hearing Protection Devices – Performance, Selection, Care, and Use
CSA Z195-02 Protective footwear
CSA Z259.10 Fall arresters and vertical rigid rails

Head protection products

Head protection products included safety helmet. It is intended primarily to provide protection to the wearer against falling objects and consequential brain injury and skull fracture.

DETAIL BELOW

Safety helmet referred to as a “helmet”, primarily intended to protect the upper part of a wearer’s head against injury from falling objects.

Safety helmet included below parts:

1.Shell: the hard, smoothly finished material that provides the general outer form of the helmet.

2.Peak: an extension of the shell above the eyes.

3.Brim: a rim surrounding the shell

4.Harness: a) Headband; b) Nape strap; c)  Cradle; d) Cushioning; e) Anti-concussion tapes; f) Comfort band or sweatband.

5.Protective padding: material contributing to the absorption of kinetic energy during an impact

6.Ventilation holes: holes provided in the shell which may allow circulation of air inside the helmet

7.Chin strap: a strap which fits under the chin to help secure the helmet on the head

8.Helmet accessories: any additional parts for special purposes such as chin strap, neck protector, drawlace, and attachment devices for lamp, cable, face protection and hearing protection

Standard Related

China Standard
GB 2811-2007 “safety helmet”;
GB/T 2428 “Adult head and face size”;
GB2812-2006 “Hard hat test method”
GB/T 2829 “Isolated Positive Pressure Oxygen Respirator”;
GB 12158 “Fire-fighting self-rescue breathing apparatus”;
DL/T 1476-2015 “Preventive test code of electric safety tools and devices”.

EU Standard
EN 397:1995 “Industrial safety helmets”;
EN 373:1993 “Protective clothing – Assessment of resistance of materials to molten metal splash”;
EN 960:1994 “Headforms for use in the testing of protective helmets”;
ISO 472 “Plastics – Vocabulary”;
ISO 4892:1981 “Plastics – Methods of exposure to laboratory light sources”;

Key Technical Requirements

1 Performance requirements

1.1 Mandatory requirements
1.1.1 Shock absorption: When a helmet is tested by the method given in 6.6, the force transmitted to the headform shall not exceed 5,0 kN.
1.1.2 Resistance to penetration: When a helmet is tested by the method given in 6.7, the point of the striker shall not contact the surface of  the headform.
1.1.3 Flame resistance: When tested by the method given in 6.8, the materials of the shell shall not burn with the emission of flame after a period of 5 s has elapsed after removal of the flame.
1.1.4 Chin strap anchorages: When tested in accordance with 6.9, the artificial jaw shall be released at a force of not less than 150 N and not more than 250 N, due to failure only of the anchorage(s).

1.1.5 Label: The label which may be attached to the helmet in accordance with 7.2.2 shall remain attached and legible on each sample helmet, following the appropriate conditioning in accordance with 6.2.3, 6.2.4, 6.2.5 or 6.2.6.
1.2 Optional requirements
1.2.1 Very low temperature (- 20°C or – 30°C): When tested for shock absorption by the method given in 6.6, the requirement of 5.1.1 shall be satisfied by one helmet which has been conditioned in accordance with 6.2.7.

1.2.2 Very high temperature (+ 150°C): When tested for shock absorption by the method given in 6.6, the requirement of 5.1.1 shall be satisfied by one helmet which has been conditioned in accordance with 6.2.8.

1.2.3 Electrical properties: When tested by all three of the methods given in 6.10, the leakage current shall not exceed 1,2 mA.

1.2.4 Lateral deformation: When tested by the method given in 6.11, the maximum lateral deformation of the helmet shall not exceed 40 mm, and the residual lateral deformation shall not exceed 15 mm.

1.2.5 Molten metal splash: When tested by the method given in 6.12, the helmet shell shall not:
a) be penetrated by the molten metal;
b) show any deformation, measured at right angles to the base plane of the helmet, greater than 10 mm;
c) burn with the emission of flame after a period of 5 s has elapsed after the pouring of molten metal has ceased.

Eyes and face protection products

Eyes and face protection products included goggles and welding mask. The function of eye and face protectors is to provide protection against impacts of different severities, optical radiations, molten metals and hot solids, droplets and splashes, dust, gases, or any combination of these.

DETAIL BELOW

Goggles

Protective glasses are a type of filter that changes the transmitted light intensity and spectrum. To avoid radiation damage to the eyes, the most effective and most common method is to wear protective glasses. The glasses can absorb light of certain wavelengths and let other wavelengths of light pass through, so they all have a certain color, and the color presented is the transmitted light color. One is for absorption and the other is for reflection. The former is used the most. Goggles are glasses that change the transmitted light intensity and spectrum to prevent radiation damage to the eyes. The glasses are divided into two categories, one for absorption and one for reflection. The former is used the most.

Standard Related

China Standard
GB/T 14866-2006 “The specifications for personal eye-protectors”;
GB/T 191 “Packaging-Pictorial marking for handling of goods”;
GB/T 2428 “Head-face dimensions of adults”

EU Standard
EN 166:2002 “Personal eye-protection-Specifications”;
EN 165 “Personal eye-protection — Vocabulary”;
EN 167:2001 “Personal eye-protection — Optical test methods”;
EN 168:2001 “Personal eye-protection — Non-optical test methods”;
EN 169 “Personal eye-protection — Filters for welding and related techniques — Transmittance requirements and recommended utilisation”;
EN 170 “Personal eye-protection — Ultraviolet filters —Transmittance requirements and recommended use”;
EN 171 “Personal eye-protection — Infrared filters — Transmittance requirements and recommended use”;
EN 172 “Personal eye-protection — Sunglare filters for industrial use”;
EN 175 “Personal protection — Equipment for eye and face protection during welding and allied processes”;
EN 379 “Specification for welding filters with switchable luminous transmittance and welding filters with dual luminous transmittance”;
EN ISO 8980-1 “Ophthalmic optics — Uncut finished spectacle lenses – Part 1: Specifications for single-vision and multifocal lenses (ISO 8980-1:1996)”;
EN ISO 8980-2 “Ophthalmic optics — Uncut finished spectacle lenses – Part 2: Specifications for progressive power lenses (ISO 8980-2:1996)”;
EN ISO 8980-3 “Ophtalmic optics – Uncut finished spectacle lenses – Part 3 : Transmittance specifications and test methods ( ISO 8980-3 :1999)”;

4 Field of vision

7 Complete eye-protectors and frames

9 Resistance to ultraviolet radiation(oculars only)

13 Protection against high-speed particles

Table 8 — Allocation of requirements and tests for unmounted and mounted oculars

Table 9 — Allocation of requirements and tests for frames and complete eye protectors

Key Technical Requirements

  1. General construction: Eye-protectors shall be free from projections, sharp edges or other defects which are likely to cause discomfort or injury during use.
  2. Materials: No parts of the eye-protector which are in contact with the wearer shall be made of materials which are known to cause any skin irritation.
  3. Headbands: Headbands, when used as the principal means of retention, shall be at least 10 mm wide over any portion which may come into contact with the wearer’s head. Headbands shall be adjustable or self-adjusting.
  4. Field of vision:  The horizontal length of the ellipses shall be of 22,0 mm, the vertical width of the ellipses shall be 20,0 mm. The centre distance of the two ellipses shall be d = c + 6 mm, where c is the pupillary distance. The pupillary distance is 64 mm for the medium head-form and 54 mm for the small head-form, if not specified differently by the manufacture.
  5. Minimum robustness: The requirement for minimum robustness is satisfied if the ocular withstands the application of a 22 mm nominal diameter steel ball with a force of (100 ± 2) N, when tested in accordance with clause 4 of EN 168:2001.
  6. Unmounted oculars: The oculars shall withstand the impact of a 22 mm nominal diameter steel ball, of 43 g minimum mass, striking the ocular at a speed of approximately 5,1 m/s, when tested in accordance with 3.1 of EN 168:2001.
  7. Complete eye-protectors and frames: The complete eye-protector or frame shall withstand the lateral and frontal impacts of a steel ball striking at a specified speed. The diameter of the steel ball and the corresponding impact speed are given in Table 5. The test shall be in accordance with the method specified in 3.2 of EN 168:2001.If a spectacle is claimed to have lateral protection it shall not be possible for the ball to strike the lateral impact points without first striking the lateral protection.
  8. Stability at an elevated temperature: Assembled eye-protectors shall show no apparent deformation when tested by the method specified in clause 5 of EN 168:2001.
  9. Resistance to ultraviolet radiation (oculars only): Oculars shall be subjected to the test for resistance to ultraviolet radiation in accordance with the method specifiedin clause 6 of EN 168:2001.At the end of the test, oculars shall meet the following requirements.a) The relative change of luminous transmittance shall not be greater than the values specified in Table 6.
  10. Resistance to corrosion: After having undergone the test for resistance to corrosion specified in clause 8 of EN 168:2001, all metal parts of the eye-protector shall display smooth surfaces, free from corrosion, when they are examined by a trained observer.
  11. Resistance to ignition: Eye-protectors shall be tested in accordance with the method specified in clause 7 of EN 168:2001 and shall be considered to be satisfactory if no part of the eye-protector ignites or continues to glow after removal of the steel rod.
  12. Protection against optical radiation
  13. Protection against high-speed particles: Eye-protectors intended to provide protection against high-speed particles shall withstand the impact of a 6 mm nominal diameter steel ball of 0,86 g minimum mass, striking the oculars and the lateral protection at one of the speeds given in Table 7.
  14. Protection against molten metals and hot solids: Eye-protectors intended to provide protection against molten metals and hot solids shall be considered to be satisfactory if:a) the eye-protector is either a goggle or a face-shield;b) the viewing area of oculars for face-shields has a minimum vertical centre-line depth of 150 mm when mounted in the appropriate housing;c) face-shields cover the eye-region rectangle of the appropriate head-form as assessed in accordance with 10.2 of EN 168:2001;d) the eye-protector satisfies the requirements for one of the three impact energy categories given in 7.2.2;e) when tested and assessed in accordance with 10.1 of EN 168:2001 they prevent the adherence of molten metal to the portion of the eye-protector which affords protection to the eye-region rectangle ABCD shown in Figure 11 of EN 168:2001;f) complete penetration of oculars for goggles, and all types of frames, housings, browguards, etc. does not occur within 7 s when tested as described in clause 11 of EN 168:2001;g) complete penetration of oculars for face-shields does not occur within 5 s when tested as described in clause 11 of EN 168:2001.
  15. Protection against droplets and splashes of liquids: Eye-protectors for use against droplets (goggles) and splashes of liquids (face-shields) shall be tested in accordance with the methods specified in clause 12 of EN 168:2001.
  16. Protection against large dust particles: Eye-protectors for use against large dust particles shall be tested in accordance with the method specified in clause 13 of EN 168:2001. The result shall be considered to be satisfactory if the reflectance after the test is not less than 80 % of its value before the test.
  17. Protection against gases and fine dust particles: Eye-protectors for use against gases and fine dust particles shall be tested in accordance with the method specified in clause 14 of EN 168:2001. They shall be regarded as satisfactory if no pink or crimson coloration appears in the area covered by the eye-protector. No account shall be taken of any such coloration up to a distance of 6 mm inside the edges of the eye-protector.
  18. Protection against short circuit electric arc: Eye-protectors for protection against short circuit electric arc shall be face-shields only. They shall have no exposed metal parts and all external edges of the protector shall be radiussed, chamfered or otherwise treated to eliminate sharp edges.Oculars shall have a minimum thickness of 1,4 mm and a scale number of 2-1,2 or 3-1,2.

Welding mask

The welding mask is a tool that protects the safety of workers during welding and cutting operations. It is a high-tech product integrating optical, electronics, human science, materials science and other disciplines. The combination of high-quality LCD and plated glass is used as a light-shielding lens. The light-sensing system on the lens can detect the generation and disappearance of arc light during electric welding in an instant, and quickly drive the liquid crystal body to change color and light to achieve safe and effective filtering of harmful light, thus protecting the welder. Eyes and faces avoid arc radiation damage

Standard Related

China Standard
GB/T 14866-2006 “The specifications for personal eye-protectors”;
GB/T 191 “Packaging-Pictorial marking for handling of goods”;
GB/T 2428 “Head-face dimensions of adults”

EU Standard
EN 175 “Personal protection — Equipment for eye and face protection during welding and allied processes”;
EN 166:1995 “Personal eye-protection-Specifications”;
EN 165:1995 “Personal eye-protection — Vocabulary”;
EN 168:1995 “Personal eye-protection — Non-optical test methods”;
EN 169:1992 “Personal eye-protection — Filters for welding and related techniques — Transmittance requirements and recommended utilisation”;
EN 379:1994 “Specification for welding filters with switchable luminous transmittance and welding filters with dual luminous transmittance”;

Key Technical Requirements

1 General requirements

Welding protector housings shall provide at least the same protection against radiation as that given by the darkest filters declared usable by the manufacturer or supplier.

Ventilation, where provided, shall be such that the intended protection shall not be affected.

2 Dimensions

2.1 Welder’s spectacles and goggles: The dimensions of the visible aperture of the welding spectacles and goggles shall meet the requirements of 7.1.1 in EN 166:1995.

2.2 Welder’s hand shields

Minimum height: 350mm                Minimum width: 210mm

When measured from the centre of the ocular the minimum depth shall not be less than 75 mm

2.3 Area of coverage for welder’s face shields and safety helmet mounted welder’s face shields: Welder’s face shields and safety helmet mounted welder’s shields shall cover the eye region rectangle of the head form in accordance with EN 168:1995 as defined in figure 1 and assessed in accordance with 8.1 of this standard.

2.4 Increased robustness of welder’s face shields, goggles and spectacles: All welding protectors shall meet the requirements in 7.1.4.2.2 of EN 166:1995 when fitted with a filter meeting the increased robustness requirement. If the use of any cover and/or backing oculars is recommended by the welding protector manufacturer in accordance with item f) of clause 10 the test shall be done according to this recommendation.

2.5 Resistance of welder’s shields to damage when dropped: When tested in accordance with 8.2 the welder’s shield shall show no apparent deformation, nor crack, break into two or more pieces or otherwise suffer permanent damage likely to affect performance. Also the filter and cover/backing ocular shall not suffer permanent damage likely to affect performance.

2.6 Light reflectance of welder’s shields: All inside surfaces of the welder’s shields shall be matt finish.

2.7 Light attenuation of welder’s shields: When tested according to 8.4 no non-attenuated light shall be visible in any of the specified positions of the welder’s shield.

2.8 Electrical insulation of welder’s shields: When measured according to 8.3 the leakage current shall not be greater than 1.2mA.

2.9 Resistance to ignition: All welding protectors shall meet the requirements pf 7.1.7 in EN 166:1995.

2.10 Resistance of welder’s shields to hot penetration: When tested in accordance with clause 7 of EN168:1995, the hot rod shall not penetrate the welding protector within 5s.

2.11 Resistance to corrosion: All welding protectors shall meet the requirements of 7.1.6 in EN166:1995.

2.12 Suitability of cleaning and disinfection: All parts of welding protectors shall be capable of withstanding, without visible change, cleaning and disinfection in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommended method.

2.13 Mass

2.13.1 Mass of welder’s face shield: If the mass of a welder’s face shield exceeds 450g, when measured without oculars, then the shield shall be clearly marked with the actual mass in grams.

2.13.2 Mass of welder’s hand shield: If the mass of a welder’s hand shield exceeds 500g, when measured with handle but without oculars, then the shield shall be clearly marked with the actual mass in grams.

Hearing organ protection products

Hearing organ protection products included earplugs/earmuffs. The function of hearing organ protection is to reduce the noise or prevent all the sound to enter your ears.

detail below

Earplugs/earmuffs

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Classification and use of earplugs

(1) Foam earplugs

Foam earplugs can reduce noise by around 30dB, which is best suited to prevent noise from entering the ear. For example, blocking noise on construction sites and blocking snoring while sleeping.

However, due to the simple design, wearing foam earplugs can make the sounds heard dull, so this type of earplugs is not recommended for those who want to hear high quality music under noise.

(2) Earmuff

Earmuff prevent all sound from entering your ear and provide good noise reduction. Using these types of earplugs will mean that you will never hear the outside world.

If your job is to operate a large machine, it will emit high-intensity noise, and you don’t need to communicate with others when you work. Wearing a head-mounted earmuff to protect your hearing is very suitable.

(3) Silicone earplugs

Silicone earplugs have a certain noise reduction function, but in general its main function is waterproof, mainly suitable for swimming, or bathing.

(4) High fidelity earplugs

High-fidelity earbuds refer to music noise-proof earplugs with built-in acoustic attenuation filter that preserves high-quality music while reducing noise, typically reducing noise by around 20dB

Standard Related

China Standard
GB 5893.1-86 “Ear protector-Earplugs”;
GB 533-81 “Rubber, vulcanized – Determination of density”;
GB 531-83 “Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic – determination of indentation hardness”;
GB 3512-83 “Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic – Accelerated ageing and heat resistance tests – Air-oven method”

EU Standard
EN 352-1:2002 “Hearing protectors – General requirements – Part 1: Ear – Muffs”;
EN 13819-1:2002 “Hearing protectors – Testing – Part 1: Physical test methods”;
EN 13819-2:2002 “Hearing protectors – Testing – Part 2: Acoustic test methods”;
EN ISO 4869-2 “Acoustics – Hearing protectors – Part 2: Estimation of effective A-weighted sound pressure levels when hearing protectors are worn(ISO 4869-2:1994)”;

2.3.12 Minimum attenuation

Key Technical Requirements

1.General: In all tests all test samples shall meet the requirements.

2. Requirements

2.1 Sizing: Ear -muff shall be classified into three size ranges, “Medium size range”, “Small size range” and ” Large size range”.

2.2 Materials and construction

2.2.1 Materials

2.2.1.1 Those parts of the ear-muffs that may come into contact with the skin shall be non-staining, soft, pliable and not know to be likely to cause skin irritation, allergic reaction or any other adverse effect on health.

2.2.1.2 All materials shall be visibly unimpaired after cleaning and disinfection by the methods specified by the manufacturer.

2.2.2 Construction

2.2.2.1 All parts of the ear-muffs shall be rounded, finished smooth and be free from sharp edges.

2.2.2.2 Ear-muffs whose cushions and/or liners are intended by the manufacturer to be replaced by the wearer shall not require the use of tools for this purpose.

2.2.2.3 All universal ear-muffs that have a mass in excess of 150g shall be provided with a headstrap.

2.2.2.4 Ear-muffs that are suitable for wearing only in the behind-the-head or under-the-chin modes, and that have a mass in excess of 150g, shall be provided with a headstrap.

2.2.2.5 All universal ear-muffs that have a mass in excess of 150g shall be provided with a headstrap.

2.2.2.6 Ear-muffs that are suitable for wearing only in the behind-the-head or under-the-chin modes, and that have a mass in excess of 150g, shall be provided with a headstrap.

2.3 Performance

2.3.1 General: Ear-muffs shall be conditioned and tested in accordance with EN 13819-1:2002 4.1.1, 4.1.2 and 4.1.3.

2.3.2 Size and adjustability

2.3.2.1 General: Size and adjustability shall be tested in accordance with EN 13819-1:2002, 4.2 and the following requirements satisfied, as appropriate.In the case of ear-muffs incorporating a means to adjust the headband force, these requirements shall be satisfied at both the maximum and the minimum force setting.

2.3.2.2 “Medium size range”/”Small size range”/”Large size range” ear-muffsa) Over-the-head ear-muffs: For each of the combinations of test dimensions shown by the letter M in EN 13819-1:2002, Table 1, the range of adjustment of the cups/headband and of the width between the cushions shall enable the ear-muffs to be fitted to the fixture.b) Behind-the-head and under-the-chin ear-muffs: For each of the combinations of test dimensions shown by the letter M in EN 13819-1:2002, Table 2, the range of adjustment of the cups/headband and of the width between the cushions shall enable the ear-muffs to be fitted to the fixture.

2.3.3 Cup rotation: When tested in accordance with EN 13819-1:2002, 4.3, the contact between the cushions and the plates of the fixture shall be continuous insofar as it provides and unbroken barrier between the inside and outside perimeter of the cushions.

2.3.4 Headband force: When tested in accordance with EN 13819-1:2002, 4.4, the headband force of each specimen shall not be greater than 14 N. In the case of ear-muffs incorporating means to adjust this force, it shall be possible to adjust the force to 14 N or less.

2.3.5 Cushion pressure: When tested in accordance with EN 13819-1:2002, 4.5, the cushion pressure of each specimen shall be not greater than 4500 Pa. For ear-muffs incorporating means to adjust the headband force, this requirement shall apply to maximum force setting or 14 N, whichever is the lower.

2.3.6 Resistance to damage when dropped: Unless 4.3.7 is to be satisfied, the ear-muffs(except for replaceable cushions) shall not crack when tested in accordance with EN 13819-1:2002, 4.6. Neither shall any part of the ear-muffs become detached, such that correct re-assembly requires the use of either a tools or a replacement part.

2.3.7 Resistance to damage when dropped  at low temperature(optional): When tested in accordance with EN 13819-1:2002, 4.7, the ear-muffs(except for replaceable cushions) shall not crack. Neither shall any part of the ear-muffs become detached, such that correct re-assembly requires the use of either a tools or a replacement part.

2.3.8 Change in headband force(including optional water immersion – headband under stress): The headband force of each specimen shall not change by more than ± 15% from that reported at 4.3.4 after the ear-muffs have been subjected to the appropriate conditioning and tests specified in the EN 13819-1:2002, 4.1.3.7 a) to 4.1.3.7 i). If the headband force was reported at 4.3.4, at more than one size adjustment, the ± 15% limit shall apply only to the size adjustment which gave the highest initial force. Additonally, and in all cases, the final headband force of each specimen shall not exceed 14 N.

2.3.9 Insertion loss: The standard deviations reported in accordance with EN 13819-2:2002, 4.1 shall be not greater than 4.0 dB in four or more adjacent one-third octave bands, and not greater than 7.0 dB in any individual one-third octave band.

2.3.10 Resistance to leakage: In the case of fluid filled cushions, they shall not leak when the ear-muffs are tested in accordance with EN 13819-1:2002, 4.12.

2.3.11 Ignitability:  When tested in accordance with EN 13819-1:2002, 4.13, not part of ear-muffs shall ignite upon application of the heated rod nor continue to glow after removal of the heated rod.

2.3.12 Minimum attenuation: When tested in accordance with EN 13819-2:2002, 4.2, the values (Mf – Sf) of the ear-muffs shall be not less than the values given in Table 1 of this standard.

Protective clothing products

Protective clothing products included common work clothes, reflective safety clothes and raincoat. The function of protective clothing products is to protect personal against harm from others.

detail below

Common work clothes

Work clothes generally refer to uniforms and work clothes. Work clothes are specially made for work needs。

Reflective safety clothes

Reflective safety clothing A reflective safety suit that reduces nighttime traffic accidents. It is a safety suit that places a reflective film on the surface of the garment for nighttime or road work. In the case of no interference at night, the effective distance between reflection and luminous is 500 meters. The safety clothing is simple to manufacture, easy to replace film, low in cost and easy to promote. It is an ideal night safety protective clothing.
Reflective safety suits are suitable for a wide range of people. Road traffic police, night-time police, sanitation workers, construction workers, old people and children, outdoor activities, cyclists, friends, etc. are all suitable for wearing reflective safety clothing.

Rain coat

Rain coats generally refer to rain-proof clothes made of waterproof fabric. Waterproof fabrics for raincoats include tape, tarpaulin and plastic film.

Standard Related

China Standard
GB11542-1989 “Rain coat”;
GB/T 250 “Textiles – Texts for colour fastness – Grey scale for assessing change in colour”;
GB/T 1335 “Standard sizing systems for garments – Men”;
GB/T 2661 “”;
GB/T 2662 “Cotton wadded clothes”;
GB/T 2663 “”;
GB/T 4745 “Textiles – Testing and evaluation for water resistance – Spray test method”;
GB/T 5296.4 “Instruction for use of products of consumer interest – Part 4: Textiles and apparel”;

EU Standard

EN 343:2003 “Protective clothing – protection against rain”;
EN 340 “Protective clothing – General requirements”;
EN 388 “Protective gloves against mechanical risks”;
EN 530:1994 “Abrasion resistance of protective clothing material – Test methods”;
EN 20811 “Textiles – Determination of resistance to water penetration – Hydrostatic pressure test”;
EN 31092 “Textiles – Determination of physiological properties – Measurement of thermal and water-vapour resistance under steady-state conditions(sweating guarded – hotplate test) (ISO 11092:1993)”;
EN ISO 1421 “Rubber – or plastic-coated fabrics – Determination of tensile strength and elongation at break (ISO 1421:1998)”;
EN ISO 7854:1997 “Rubber – or plastic-coated fabrics – Determination of resistance to damage by flexing (ISO 7854:1995)”;
EN ISO 13934-1 “Textiles – Tensile properties of fabrics – Part 1: Determination of maximum force and elongation at maximum force using the strip method”;
EN ISO 13935-2 “Textiles – Seam tensile properties of fabrics and made-up textile articles – Part 2: Determination of maximum force to seam rupture using the grab method”
EN ISO 12947-1 “Textiles – Determination of the abrasion resistance of fabrics by the Martindale method – Part 1: Martindale abrasion testing apparatus”;
EN ISO 12947-2 “Textiles – Determination of the abrasion resistance of fabrics by the Martindale method – Part 2: Determination of specimen breakdown”;
ISO 1817 “Rubber, vulcanized – Determination of the effect of liquids”;
ISO 4674 “Rubber- or plastics-coated fabrics – Determination of tear resistance”;

1 General

2 Resistance to water penetration

3 Water vapour resistance

Key Technical Requirements

1 General: The ergonomic requirements of EN 340 shall be applied. The components of the garment (see also annex C) are tested in accordance with the following requirements. The application of the single tests to each component is shown in Table 1.

2 Resistance to water penetration: When tested in accordance with 5.1, resistance to water penetration of the outer shell material together with any applied watertight layer shall be in accordance with Table 2.If a specimen gets different classes of classification in the different tests for marking in accordance with clause 6, the lowest class shall be indicated.

3 Water vapour resistance: When tested in accordance with 5.2, water vapour resistance of all layers of the garment shall be in accordance with Table 3.

4 Tensile strength of the outer shell material: When tested in accordance with 5.3, the outer shall material shall withstand a minimum tensile force of 450 N in both orthogonal directions of the material. For materials with an elongation of more than 50% this requirement is not applicable.

5 Tear resistance of the outer shell material: When tested in accordance with 5.4 the outer shell material shall withstand a minimum tearing force of 25 N in both orthogonal directions of material.

6 Dimensional change of the protective clothing: When tested in accordance with 5.5 and as specified in Table 1, the dimensional change of relevant materials in both orthogonal directions shall not exceed ± 3% after five washing or dry cleaning cycles.

7 Seam strength of the outer shell material: When tested in accordance with 5.6, the seam strength of the outer shell material shall be at least 225 N. For materials with an elongation of more than 50% this requirement is not applicable.

Hand protection products

Hand protection products included gloves. The function of hand protection products is to protect hand against harm from tools and so on.

Detail below

Gloves

Gloves are hand warmers or labor protection items, and are also decorative. Gloves are a very special thing. Originally it was not made for practical use. It was only in modern times that it became a must-have for cold areas, or medical anti-bacteria and industrial protective equipment.
Gloves are divided into sewing, knitting, dipping, etc. according to the manufacturing method. Gloves are cut from a variety of leather, rubber, knitwear or woven fabrics.
Gloves are made of cotton yarn, plush, leather, microfiber, cloth, rubber, etc. according to the material.

Foot protection products

Foot protection products included shoes & boots. The function of foot protection products is to protect foot and legs against harm from foreseeable injuries.

detail below

Safety shoes & boots

Safety shoes are a general term for safety shoes and protective shoes. They are generally used in different workplaces to protect the feet and legs from foreseeable injuries. Different safety shoes have different application scopes, and the requirements for safety shoes are different. The specific performance is as follows:
Protective toe safety shoes: The inner head safety performance is AN1 grade, suitable for metallurgy, mining, forestry, port, loading and unloading, quarrying machinery, construction, petroleum, chemical industry, etc.
Anti-piercing safety shoes: The puncture-resistant strength is Grade 1, suitable for mining, fire protection, construction, forestry, cold work, machinery and so on.
Anti-smashing
Puncture prevention
anti-static
Oil resistant

Fall prevention products

Fall prevention products included safety rope, safety net and dense safety net.

detail below

Personal fall protection equipment

Personal protective equipment that prevents workers from falling from high places or hanging safely after the fall. According to different conditions of use, it can be divided into the following three categories:1, The fence work beltBy attaching the human body to the vicinity of the fixed structure by a rope or a belt surrounding the fixed structure, the operator’s hands can perform other operations of the seat belt.2, Regional restrictions seat beltIt is used to limit the range of activities of the operator and to avoid reaching the seat belt where the falling area may occur.3, Fall suspension seat beltA seat belt that hangs the operator when the work is carried out at a height or when the climber falls.

Standard Related

China Standard
GB6095-2009 “Personal fall protection systems”;
GB/T 6096-2009 “Personal fall protection systems testing method”;

EU Standard

EN 353-1:2014 “Personal fall protection equipment-guided type fall arresters including an anchor line”;
EN 361 “Personal protective equipment against falls from a height – full body harnesses”;
EN 362 “Personal protective equipment against falls from a height – Connectors”;
EN 364:1992 “Personal protective equipment against falls from a height – Test methods”;
EN 365 “Personal protective equipment against falls from a height – General requirements for instructions for use, maintance, periodic examination, repair, marking and packaging”;
EN 10264-2 “Steel wire and wire products – steel wire for ropes – Part 2: Cold drawn non alloy steel wire for ropes for general applications”;
EN 13411-5 “Terminations for steel wire ropes – safety – Part 5: U-bolt wire rope grips”;
EN ISO 9277 “Corrosion tests in artificial atmospheres – Salt spray tests(ISO 9277)”;

USA Standard

ANSI/ASSE Z359.1-2007 “Safety requirements for personal fall arrest systems, subsystems and components”;

Canada Standard

CSA Z259.10 “Fall arresters and vertical rigid rails”;

3.1 General

Key Technical Requirements

1 Materials and construction

1.1 Materials

1.1.1 The line part of a rigid anchor line shall be made of a rail or a wire rope. Wire rope used in the manufacture of a rigid anchor line shall have a minimum nominal diameter of 8 mm and shall be made either from stainless steel or steel galvanized conforming to EN 10264-2.

1.1.2 Terminations(e.g. a swaged ferrule) for a rigid anchor line made from wire rope shall be made from a metallic material and not known to cause an adverse reaction with the material of the wire rope(e.g. dissimilar metal corrosion, cracking)

1.1.3 Connecting or energy dissipating elements from fibre ropes, webbing and sewing threads shall be made from virgin filament or multifilament synthetic fibres suitable for their intended use. The breaking tenacity of the synthetic fibres shall be known to be at least 0. 6 N/tex.

1.1.4 Materials that may come into contact with the skin of the user shall not be known to cause imitating or sensitization effects when used as intended.4.

1.1.5 When checked in accordance with 5.1, exposed edges or corners of elements shall be relieved either with a radius of at least 0.5 mm or a chamfer of at least 0. 5 mm x 45°.

1.2 Construction

1.2.1 The guided type fall arrester shall be removable from the rigid anchor line

1.2.2 The guided type fall arrester including the rigid anchor line shall be so designed that unintentional separation of the guided type fall arrester from the rigid anchor line is prevented.

1.2.3 If the guided type fall arrester is removable by the user from the rigid anchor line other than by removing it from the ends of the rigid anchor line, the guided type fall arrester or the nigid anchor line shall be so designed that the guided type fall arrester can only be detached by at least two consecutive deliberate manual actions.

1.2.4 The guided type fall arrester including the rigid anchor line shall be equipped with a function(s) to prevent incorrect orientation when being fitted or attached to the rigid anchor line.

1.2.5 The connecting element(s) shall be permanently attached to the guided type fall arrester.

1.2.6 When attached to the rigid anchor line the guided type fall arrester shall be capable of accompanying the user during upward and downward changes of position without requiring manual intervention.

1.2.7 If a guided type fall arrester includes a non-metallic element e. g. an energy dissipating element, this element (including end terminations) shall be protected against abrasion.

1.2.8 Stop devices that can be opened shall be designed so that they can only be operated by deliberate manual action, shall be self-closing and not be removable from the rigid anchor line.

1.2.9 Connectors used in or as a connecting element shall fullfil the requirements of EN362 excluding subclauses 4.5 and 4.6.

1.2.10 U-bolt clamps including those conforming to EN 13411-5 shall not be used to form a top termination in the rigid anchor line made from wire rope.

2 Static strength

2.1 Energy dissipating element preloadingIf any part of the guided type fall arrester including the rigid anchor line is fitted with an energy dissipating element, it shall be tested in accordance with 5.2.1.2.9. The permanent extension of the energy dissipating element after pre-loading with 2 kN shall not be greater than 20 mm.

2.2 Guided type fall arrester including rigid anchor line

2.2.1 When tested in accordance with 5.2.2.2, the guided type fall arrester including the rigid anchor line shall sustain a load of 15 KN.

2.2.2 If any load-bearing element, e.g. an energy dissipating element, is made from non-metallic materials and is intended to remain permanently installed, it shall sustain a load of 22 kN when tested in accordance with 5.2.1.2.9

2.2.3 For rigid anchor lines made from wire rope that have been tested in accordance with 5.3.2 and have a peak load at the top anchor greater than 6 kN, the wire rope and all other elements from the top of the anchor line, e. g. an energy dissipating element, but excluding the guided type fall arrester, shall be tested in accordance with 5.2.2.3 and shall hold a load of 2.5 times the recorded peak load (permanent deformation without breaking is acceptable)

2.2.4 When tested in accordance with 5.2.2.4, if a guided type fall arrester cannot freely rotate around its rigid anchor line or on a guiding bracket it shall hold a lateral load of 1 kN without becoming detached from the rigid anchor line and without permanent deformation of the guided type fall arrester or the rigid anchor line. Deformation of guiding bracket is permissible provided the guided type fall arrester can freely pass the guding bracket in an upwards and downwards direction without manual intervention.

2.3 Stop devices

2.3.1 When tested in accordance with 5.2.3.1, stops type A shall hold a load of 2 kN. Permanent deformation without breaking is acceptable.

2.3.2 When tested in accordance with 5.2.3.2, stops type B shall hold a load of 12 KN. Permanent deformation without breaking is acceptable.

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Safety nets

The safety net is a protective net placed under or on the side of the high-altitude construction equipment installation or performance to prevent accidents caused by people or objects falling. The safety net consists of a net body, border ropes, tie ropes and tendon ropes. The net body is braided from a mesh rope and has a diamond or square mesh. The mesh size refers to the distance between two adjacent knots of the braid. The rope on the edge of the net body is called the border rope. The size of the safety net (nominal size) is determined by the size of the side rope; the rope that secures the safety net to the support is called a tie ropes. In addition, the ropes used to increase the strength of the safety net are collectively referred to as tendon ropes.

Standard Related

China Standard
GB 5725-2009 “Safety nets”;
GB/T 5455 “Textiles – Burning behaviour – Determination of damaged length, afterglow time and afterflame time of vertically oriented specimens”;
GB/T 8834 “Fibre ropes – Determination of certain physical and mechanical properties”;
GB/T 10125 “Corrosion tests in artificial atmospheres – Salt spray tests”;
GB/T 12903 “Personal protective equipment terminology”;
GB/T 14522 “Artificial weathering test method for plastics, coating and rubber materials used for machinery industrial products – Fluorescent UV lamps”;

EU Standard

EN 1263-1:2014 “Temporary works equipment – Safety nets – Part 1: Safety requirements, test methods”;
EN 1263-2:2014 “Temporary works equipment – Safety nets – Part 2: Safety requirements for the erection of safety nets”;
EN ISO 1806 “Fishing nets – Determination of mesh breaking force of netting (ISO 1806)”;
EN ISO 2307 “Fibre ropes – Determination of certain physical and mechanical properties (ISO 2307)”;
EN ISO 4892-1 “Plastic – Methods of exposure to laboratory list sources – Part 1: General guidance (ISO 4892-1)”;
EN ISO 7500-1 “Metallic materials – Verification of static uniaxial testing machines – Part 1: Tension/compression testing machines – Verification and calibration of the force-measuring system (ISO 7500-1)”;
ISO 554 “Standard atmospheres for conditioning and/or testing – Specifications”

Table 1 - Main symbols

This is custom heading element

1.6 Supporting framework

1.4 Other ropes

1.2 Net

Key Technical Requirements

1 Construction

1.1 Mesh rope

The mesh rope construction shall have a minimum of three independent threads and shall be constructed in such a way that it cannot unravel. Mesh rope shall be tested in accordance to 7. 3. During the test, the mesh rope shall be able to hold the test mass without sustaining the damage.

1.2 Net

Nets shall be made with a square(Q)or diamond(D)mesh, see Figure 6 a)and Figure 6 b). The mesh size IM shall not exceed 60 mm for net classes A 1 and B 1 and 100 mm for net classes A 2 and B 2, see Figure 6

The mesh size shall be checked in accordance with 7.2.

The loose ends at the edge of the net shall be secured to prevent the net unravelling, see Figure 6.6.

1.3 Border rope

The border rope shall pass through each mesh at the edges of the net, whether sewn or not.

The joint between the ends of a border rope shall be secured against unintentionally becoming undone. This can be achieved, e.g. by splicing. Border rope shall be tested in accordance with 7.3.

1.4 Other ropes

The ends of all ropes used in safety nets shall be secured against unravelling, e.g. by melting or tying or sewing with rigging yarn. The knots or connections between the ends of ropes within the selvage of a net shall be secured against unintended opening. This can be managed, e.g. by sewed overlocking of a minimum of 200mm

The internal length of a loop shall be at least 150 mm, see Figure 5.

1.5 Test mesh for yearly inspection

Safety nets shall be provided with at least one test mesh. The test mesh shall be loosely threaded through the meshes of the net and be attached in the border area. The test mesh shall come from the same production run as that used for the related net. In order to ensure that the test mesh origin can be properly identified(with the related netting), seals with the same identity number shall be fixed to the test mesh and to the related net.

1.6 Supporting framework

When erected, the framework shall be such that the net can be supported by fixing each mesh rope directly or anchored to it along the edge at intervals not exceeding 2. 5 m, using the border rope.

While the distance between the gallows (see Figure 4) shall be ≤ 5,00m, the border rope at the top is supported due to the construction at these distances.2 Tensile strength of ropes

 

2.1 Border ropeThe Rope K shall have a minimum tensile breaking force of 30.0 kN when tested according to 75. The joint between the ends of the Rope K shall have a minimum tensile breaking force of 24. 0 kN.

The Rope P and the Rope w shall have a minimum tensile breaking force of 20. 0 kN when tested according to 7.5. The joint between the ends of the Rope P and Rope W shall have a minimum tensile breaking force of 16,0 kN.

The Ropes K, P and w shall be twisted or braided

2.2 Tie rope

The rope L or M shall have a minimum tensile breaking force of 30.0 kN when tested according to 7.5. The rope R or Z shall have a minimum tensile breaking force of 15.0 kN when tested according to 7.5.

The Rope F shall have a minimum tensile breaking force of 20. 0 kN when tested in accordance with 7.5.

The Ropes F. G, H, R, J, L, M and Z shall be twisted or braided.

2.3 Coupling rope

Rope N and Rope O shall have a minimum tensile breaking force of 7.5 kN when tested according to 7.5.

The Ropes N and o shall be twisted or braided.

3 Energy absorption capacity of the test mesh

When testing for yearly inspection it shall be shown that the test mesh has a sufficient resistance with respect to its deterioration due to ageing over a one year period. The sufficient capacity by taking account of ageing shall be verified according to 7.7.

4 Static strength of a net sample

4.1 Breaking energy

The breaking energy Eo in kilojoules of a net in the as new state shall be at least:EO ≧ EN X γ1 X γ2

Where

EO the breaking energy of a net in the as new state, see 7.4.3.

EN the action value of energy for class N= A and class N= B, see 4.1:

γ1 the general safety factor: γ1 =1.5.

γ2 the specific coefficient for the deterioration due to ageing, see 7.7 resp. 7.8.

4.2 Displacement

When testing in accordance with 7. 4. the vertical displacement of the test mass up to the point at which the net brakes shall be between 0. 8 m and 1.5 m.

5 Dynamic strength of safety net System s(net with border rope)

System S safety nets (net with border rope) shall be tested in accordance with 7.9. The maximum instantaneous deflection of the net under dynamic action shall not exceed 75% of the length of the shortest side of the net. The test mass shall be held by the net in each test. Permanent deformation and breaking of several mesh ropes is permitted.

6 Dynamic strength of safety net System T (net attached on brackets for horizontal use)

Safety nets System T shall be tested according to 7. 10. The maximum instantaneous defection of the net under dynamic action shall not exceed the length of the shortest side of net. The test mass shall be held by the net in each test. Permanent deformation is permitted. The test mass shall not touch any element of the supporting framework.

7 Dynamic strength of safety net System u(net attached to supporting construction for vertical use)

System U safety nets shall be tested in accordance with 7.11. The test mass shall be held by the net in each test. Permanent deformation is permitted. The mesh ropes at the edge of the net shall not brake.

8 Dynamic strength of safety net System V(net with border rope attached to a gallow type support)

Safety nets System V shall be tested according to 7.12. The maximum instantaneous deflection of the net under dynamic action shall not exceed 50% of the length of the shortest side of the net. The test mass shall be held by the net in each test. Permanent deformation is permitted.

Personal protection products

Personal protection products included barrier, roadblock and road cone. It is intended primarily to provide protection of construction site facilities and personnel.

DETAIL BELOW

barrier

The barrier is a longitudinal energy absorbing structure that absorbs the collision energy by self-deformation or vehicle climb, thereby changing the direction of the vehicle, preventing the vehicle from going out of the road or entering the opposite lane, and minimizing the damage to the occupant. According to its longitudinal position in the highway, it can be divided into roadbed guardrails and bridge guardrails; according to its horizontal position in the road, it can be divided into roadside guardrails and central divider guardrails; according to the degree of deformation after collision, can be divided It is a rigid guardrail, a semi-rigid guardrail and a flexible guardrail.

Roadblock

Roadblocks are obstacles that block road traffic. They can be used as barriers for fences during road construction, oil pressure security barriers to prevent terrorist attacks outside important buildings, or roadblocks temporarily built by demonstrators in large demonstrations.

Road cone

Road cones, also known as roadblocks, are used in the middle of roads, dangerous areas and road construction sites. They are designed to temporarily separate traffic flow, guide traffic, direct vehicles to bypass dangerous sections, protect construction site facilities and personnel, etc. location. It is commonly used in urban intersection lanes, highway maintenance, traffic police enforcement, road enforcement, hotels, communities, stadiums, dangerous areas, road construction and other areas.
The road cone has a reflective material and a non-reflective material. Normally used road vertebras are highly reflective materials.